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HISTORY OF ISLAMIC Scriptures

HISTORY OF ISLAMIC Scriptures1- THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF WRITINGS

Manuscripts, which are among the most valuable cultural assets of countries and are the most authentic sources in science, art and culture research, are works created by handwriting.

Our subject in this road, which extends from papyrus to leather, from cotton sheet to paper, is the works written by hand on paper. 

No manuscript is the same as a printed work. 

Since they are often reproduced by writing one by one by different people, each one of them differs, sometimes knowingly or unknowingly, omission, addition or misreading of any word.

The first Islamic manuscript, Hz. It begins with Osman’s copying the Qur’an and sending one copy to Medina and the other copies to Kufa, Basra and Damascus. 

These mushafs are the first manuscripts in Islam.

Later, the writing of books developed and besides the works such as Hadith-i Şerif and Siyer-i Nebi, copyright and translation works began to be written on the subjects of poetry, language, tafsir, medicine and fiqh. 

In order to make the text easier to read, punctuation and punctuation marks were used in the first century of the Hegira, and in the second century of the Hegira, Halil b. 

Order was brought to the writing by Ahmed al-Farahidi.

With the discovery of paper by the Chinese captives in the second century, writing progressed considerably, and in the fourth century, papyrus gave way to paper.

2- IMPORTANT ARABIC WRITING COLLECTIONS IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD

It is not possible to say an exact number about the number of manuscripts in the Islamic world. 

Statistics on this subject are approximate and not exact. 

While ranking, some sources giving information about the number of Arabic manuscripts in the world were relied upon. 

Accordingly, the countries with the highest collection of Arabic manuscripts are: Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Algeria.

There are also many manuscripts in countries where Turks ruled for a long time, such as Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Iran, China, and India.

The world countries with Turkish manuscripts can be listed as follows: Afghanistan, United States of America, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Algeria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Iraq, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. , Lebanon, Hungary, Egypt, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Syria, Yugoslavia and Greece. 

As a result, it can be said that the number of Turkish manuscripts in the world is well over 100,000 volumes.

3- TURKISH WRITINGS ABROAD

Since the first centuries of Islamic history, many scholars of Turkish origin have written numerous works first in Arabic, then in Persian and Turkish. 

5,000 at Dar al-Kutubi’l-Kavmiye in Cairo, Egypt; around 4,000 at Cairo University; also, although the exact numbers are not known, in France, in the National Library of Paris (Bibliothèque Nationale); in the British Museum and Chester Beatty in England; 

in the Vatican, Italy; Germany in Berlin and Russia in Leningrad; There are many manuscripts in Hungary’s Budapest Academy of Sciences and National Library.

Other than these, some manuscripts collections include Nigeria, Palestine, Jordan, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sudan, People’s Republic of China,

4- ISLAMIC WRITINGS IN OTHER REGIONS OF THE WORLD

It is a fact that Islamic manuscripts appeared wherever Muslims settled. 

Most of the manuscripts produced in Central Asia and the republics in the south of the former Soviet Union are within the borders of the former Islamic regions and constitute a cultural region as a whole with Turkey, Iran and India. was no different.

China and Southeast Asia not only took Islamic culture from the Middle East and South Asia, but also created their own important Islamic literatures. 

The works belonging to these literatures were written in both Arabic and local languages. 

The literatures written in local languages, especially in Southeast Asia, are extremely different from each other and unique in the regions where Islam spread. 

The literature that flourished at court in Java and Indonesia is a good example of this.

Chinese

Chinese Muslims can be broadly divided into two groups: Muslims living in Shinkiang in Chinese Turkestan, and Han Chinese who believe in Islam and live in large cities in other provinces of China. 

The first group has an ancient Islamic literature. 

There are many manuscripts in this group, most of which are in private or semi-private collections. 

The owners of the collections and those who protect them jealously guard the works, not allowing foreigners, both Muslim and non-Muslim, to have an idea about the contents of the manuscript collections. 

Although we do not know much about Chinese Islamic literature, it is clear that an Arabic calligraphy style developed in China. 

Some traditions of Chinese calligraphy have been preserved in this style.

For this reason, although the Arabic written in China is actually Arabic,

Chinese Style Quran (Leiden University Library, 844 F19)

Arabic-Chinese manuscript page (19th century)

Indonesia

The situation in Indonesia is completely opposite to that in China. Indonesian differs in language. 

It is here that some Islamic literatures have emerged on a larger scale. 

Considering the number of texts, the literature written in Javanese is the largest. 

The following literatures are Malay literature, Sundanese literature (West Javanese), and Buginese literature (Celebes). 

Many smaller Islamic literatures can also be counted, particularly Sasak literature (Eastern Lombok) and Lampung Literature (South Sumatra). 

Although the content of these literatures is partly like any Islamic literature, there is a notable indigenous element in Islamic literatures in Indonesia. 

This element includes pre-Islamic features in Indonesia and indigenous elements such as performing arts.

Mirac-name written in the Uighur alphabet

(MS Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Suppl. Turc 190)The majority of the texts belonging to these literatures were produced at a very late date, starting from the 16th century, which is generally characterized as post-Classical and pre-modern. 

The reason for this is that Islam spread quite late in these regions. 

The spread of Islam on the island of Java took place from the end of the 15th century. 

The establishment of Islam in Java was the result of the discovery of this island by the Europeans. 

The writing culture in these regions continued for a long time until the 20th century.

Manuscript of the Indonesian Aceh region of the Qur’an 19th century

(MS Leiden University Library, Or. 14,314, p.405a)It was probably in the 16th century that Indonesians became acquainted with paper and used it widely. 

Before this period, all kinds of natural writing materials were used. 

The most famous of these are palm leaf and bark paper. 

These natural writing materials are still used in some regions in very small numbers. 

The use of paper quickly became widespread and in the 18th century paper became the most used material. 

Islamic literatures in Indonesia have mostly preserved their ancient pre-Islamic alphabet. 

These are usually derived from the Sanskrit alphabet. 

Today, all Islamic literature in Indonesia uses the Latin script, except for Arabic texts. 

Only in Malaysia some of the local Islamic languages ​​still use the Arabic script.

Kisa-i Yusuf written in the Arabic script in the Swahili language

(MS Berlin, Staasbibliothek Preussischer Kurturbesits, Or. 9893)The majority of Indonesian manuscripts today are located in Indonesia and Malaysia and in public institutions in their former colonizers, the Netherlands and England. 

Much of the literary heritage of Islam in Southeast Asia is found in the national and university libraries of these countries. 

There is still very little information available about most of the private collections in the region. 

The information that has reached the present day on these literatures is mainly based on research conducted in the Netherlands and England.

Hadith book written in Berber language in Southern Morocco

(MS Leiden University Library Or. 23.339)

5- THE EVENT OF THE FIRST TURKISH MANUFACTURINGS

Ibn en-Nedim mentions a book called “Kitabü’l-buzat li’t-Türk” among the works translated from various languages ​​into Arabic. The original of this work may be in Turkish.

The Uyghur State, which was established in Central Asia in 745 AD, has an important place in the history of Turkish culture. 

This state adopted the Aramaic alphabet under the influence of Iranian culture and created a written Turkish literature in Turkish language for the first time in history. 

During this state period, Turkish became the language of bureaucracy, the official correspondence of the state was made in Turkish, and books were translated from Sanskrit and Chinese into Turkish. 

In the tenth century, the Uyghurs also influenced their western neighbors, the Eastern Karakhanids, and correspondence in this state was made in Turkish with Uyghur letters. 

In the thirteenth century, the Mongols also had Uighur scribes in their state affairs. 

Through these scribes, Turkish culture influenced China, Iran and even Korea.

The first books in Arabic apart from the Qur’an VIII. at the beginning of the century; Persian books, on the other hand, began to be produced during the Samanid period in the 10th century. 

According to a rumor, the Qur’an was translated into Turkish in this century. 

Today, there is a Turkish translation of the Qur’an in the Library of Mashhad, which is known to have been translated for the mother of Mahmud of Ghazni (died 1030). 

Again, in the tenth century, books with Uighur letters are seen in the palaces of the Uighurs. XI. 

In the 19th century, the official language of the Eastern Karakhanids continued to be Turkish. 

Yusuf Has Hacib, who lived in Kashgar in this century, wrote an important work called “Kudadgu-Bilig” in Turkish in verse in 1069. 

Three manuscript copies of this work, one in Uighur and two in Arabic letters, have survived to the present day. 

Again in this century, during the Karakhanids, by Kasgarli Mahmud, in order to show the richness of the Turkish language. 

He wrote a Turkish advice called “Atabetü’l-hakâ’ik” in Uighur letters. 

Ahmed Yesevi (d. 1166), who had a great influence on the conversion of Turks to Islam, also lived during the Karakhanids period and his poems were collected in a book called “Divan-ı wisdom”. 

He wrote a Turkish advice called “Atabetü’l-hakâ’ik” in Uighur letters. Ahmed Yesevi (d. 1166), who had a great influence on the conversion of Turks to Islam, also lived during the Karakhanids period and his poems were collected in a book called “Divan-ı wisdom”.

During the Seljuk period, the Khwarezm region was thoroughly Turkified, and the state of the Khwarezmshahs was established here. Meanwhile, the great scholar Carallah Mahmud b. 

Ömer ez-Zamakhşeri (d. 1144) wrote his work “Mukaddimetü’l-Edeb” in order to teach Arabic to the people of Khwarezm and the Turks, and gave Turkish translations of Arabic words between the lines. 

Some works are attributed to Hakim Süleyman Ata (d. 1186), who was the greatest follower of Ahmet Yesevî. Among them, there are “Bakırgan book”, “The End Times”, “Mary’s book”. 

The most important work written on Turkish in this period is its author, Şemseddin Muhammed b. Kays is “Tibyanu’l-lugâti’t-Türki”.

Anatolia XI.-XII. Although Turkish was spoken among the Turkish people in the Seljuk palaces and camps in Anatolia, Iran, Syria and Iraq with the settlement of the Turks in the 17th century, the state used Arabic and Persian in its official correspondence. 

Prolonged wars created anonymous Turkish epics among the Anatolian people. “Danishmend Gazi Epic”, “Battal Gazi Epic”, “Dede Korkut Epic” are among such works.

The oldest book written in Anatolia, whose author is known, is the medical book named “Tuhfe-i Mubarrizî”. 

Its author is Hakim Bereket, a physician of Khwarezm origin. 

There is also another medical book in Turkish called “Hulâsa der ilm-i tıb”.

The Principalities, which declared their independence as a result of the weakening of the Anatolian Seljuk State, encouraged the use of Turkish in state affairs. 

Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey, who was the head of the Karamanoğulları Principality, ordered the use of Turkish in state affairs when he captured Konya in 1276. 

Other principalities in Anatolia followed the same path. 

After the establishment of the Ottoman Principality in 1299, Turkish developed. XV. 

In the 19th century, Turkish became the language of bureaucracy and science in the west with the Ottomans and in the east with the Timurids.

XIII. In the 16th century, Turkish poetry also developed in Anatolia. 

Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi wrote some of his poems in Turkish. Seyyad Hamza, Hz. 

He wrote his “Salsalname” in 1245, which describes Ali’s war with a giant named Salsal. 

Various poems of Sultan Veled (died 1312) were in Turkish. 

One of the important works is “Makalât” by Hacı Bektaş Veli (died 1271). 

Yunus Emre’s (died ca 1325) “Divan”; Ahmed Fakih’s (d.1231) poetic work named “Çarhnâme”; ‘Ali’s “Kıssa-i Yusuf” should also be reminded.

XIV. In the 19th century, Turkish continued to develop. 

Both the Ottomans and the Anatolian beys preserved Turkish. 

So much so that Orhan Gazi wrote his charter in Turkish. XIV. 

The number of books written in Turkish on behalf of the Ottomans and translated into Turkish in the 19th century is more than 40. 

Gülşehri, the translator of “Mantıku’t-tayr”, was among those who wrote Turkish books in this period; Şeyhoğlu, translator of “Merzuban-name” and “Kâbus-name”; Asik Pasha, the author of “Garib-name”; Süleyman Çelebi, the author of “Mevlid”; Divan owners Nesimi and Kadi Burhaneddin; Ahmedi, the author of “Tevârih-i Al-i Osman” and “Iskender-nâme”; The author of “Ferheng-nâme-i Sa’di” Hodja Mesud b. Osman; “Gülistan” translator Seyf-i Serayî; Dursun Fakih, the author of “Gazavât-nâme”; “Hulviyat-i Shahi” its author, Candaroğlu İsmail Bey; Kutbuddin Iznikî, the author of “Mukaddime-i Kutbuddin”; Yazici-zâde Salahaddin, owner of “Melheme”; Famous people such as Ahmed Bican and Ahmed-i Dai can be counted as the owner of the books “Envaru’l-‘aşıkîn”, “Ahmediye” and “Acaibu’l-mahlukât translation”.

XV. In the century, more than a hundred works were written in Turkish in Anatolia. 

Turkish has become an independent language of bureaucracy and science, and the third largest cultural language of the Islamic world alongside Arabic and Persian. 

After this century, Turkish copyright and translation continued increasingly.

XVII. The works written in Turkish since the 16th century are not less than Arabic and Persian works. 

Turkish works have been created from almost every work written in the Islamic world. 

These are: religion and language sciences, history, geography, philosophy, rhetoric, physics, chemistry, medicine, zoology, botany, magic, dream interpretation and encyclopedic works.

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